Fonds F2541 - Jean L'Heureux fonds

Identity area

Reference code



Jean L'Heureux fonds


  • Photocopied 1960 (originally created 1871) (Creation)

Level of description


Extent and medium

1 cm of textual records

Context area

Name of creator

Biographical history

Jean L’Heureux, ca. 1837-1919, was believed to have been born in Lower Canada. He studied for the priesthood, and visited Father Albert Lacombe’s mission at St. Albert in Rupert’s Land in 1861, but was expelled after being exposed as a homosexual. He subsequently travelled among the Blackfoot of Alberta and Montana, claiming to be a priest, and was accepted by them. He took the Blackfoot name Nio’kskatapi, or Three Persons. L’Heureux was despised by the missionaries and fur traders, but was often used by them as a translator, mediator, and emissary. He was present as a translator at the signing of Treaty 7, and accompanied Crowfoot and other chiefs on their famous trip to Montreal and Ottawa. He became an employee of the Department of Indian Affairs in 1881, but was dismissed in 1891. He died in the Lacombe Home at Midnapore, Alberta. For further information see Hugh Dempsey's article, "Jean L'Heureux", in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 14, p. 652; and Raymond Huel's article, "Jean L'Heureux : A Life of Adventure" in Alberta History, vol. 60, no. 4 (Autumn 2012), p. 9-16.


Archival history

Immediate source of acquisition or transfer

Photocopy purchased from the Public Archives of Canada, 1960.

Content and structure area

Scope and content

The fonds consists of a photocopy of Jean L’Heureux’s manuscript “Description of a Portion of the Nor’West and the Indians”, containing descriptions of geographical features of the Blackfoot territory, as well as comments on Blackfoot customs, the whiskey trade, and predictions for settlement.

Appraisal, destruction and scheduling


System of arrangement

Conditions of access and use area

Conditions governing access

No restrictions on access.

Conditions governing reproduction

Language of material

Script of material

Language and script notes

The material is in French, accompanied by an English translation produced by Glenbow staff.

Physical characteristics and technical requirements

Finding aids

No finding aid, but the manuscript has been translated into English.

Allied materials area

Existence and location of originals

The original is at Library and Archives Canada.

Existence and location of copies

Related units of description

Jean L’Heureux’s English-Blackfoot Dictionary (1878) is among the John W. Tims family fonds at M-4418.

Related descriptions

Notes area


Title based on contents of records.

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Description control area

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Level of detail

Dates of creation revision deletion

Thursday, September 13, 2018




Accession area